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But that was not the end of his back and forth between France and Romania. At the moment of the defeat in , he fled back to Romania But almost immediately Ionesco desperately sought to leave for France, especially after Romania joined the Axis powers shortly after he returned to Romania. His trajectory breaks the mold of our usual understanding of immigration as a departure and an arrival. For Ionesco, immigration was a series of comings and goings, both between countries and languages.

He went back and forth between two cultures that were both descending into fascism. He seemed to think that in France, despite being under Nazi occupation, he would be safer as a Jewish person. Ionesco has said that at that time he felt in exile in Romania and was homesick for France, as opposed to the other way around. Ionesco has written that the only legal way for him to return to France was to take an official post in the Romanian government.

Perhaps he felt safer in France, or perhaps this was an excuse he made for why he came to work in Vichy. Either way, this era of his life is usually glossed over by critics; scholars have completely ignored it or provided incorrect information about it. While this article does not aim to condemn Ionesco, it does point to his deep involvement in the politics of his time. Nevertheless, the situation was not always as black and white as it seems. He was, according to Nazi law, a Jewish man hiding in plain sight in Vichy. He also corresponded with Jean Ballard of the Cahiers du Sud , who published writers on the Left as well as Jewish writers such as Benjamin Fondane, about publishing translations of Romanian poetry He referred to Voronca by the pseudonym Edouard Valla Instead, his network provides a new opportunity to study the role of language in cultural diplomacy in Occupied France.

Throughout the s and s, the government had managed propaganda through both the President of the Council of Ministries and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Dragu served as the head of the press services in the Southern Zone of France. He writes that Romanian propaganda in France is a psychological arm, which he and his staff use in an organized, methodological, and scientific manner Donning the clothes of France meant understanding and reporting on the political, economic, and cultural atmosphere of France.


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His main headquarters remained in Vichy The Romanian delegation focused its activities in these four cities, as well as in Vichy and Paris. The Paris offices also included another young Romanian writer: Emil Cioran Ionesco published his very first works in French under Vichy and in the aim of promoting Franco-Romanian relations.

L' « Histoire littéraire de la France » et l'érudition bénédictine au siècle des Lumières

As early as July , the Nazi occupiers enforced the requirement to have ausweise [laisser-passer] to circulate around France. But members of the Romanian Delegation had access to ausweise and passierschiene [passes] allowing physical movement between Paris and Vichy This ausweis was one of the resolutions to a number of problems Dragu had outlined that summer: the isolation of the delegation from Romania as well as the barriers between the Occupied and Free Zones.

As a member of the delegation, Ionesco himself had freedom of movement between Vichy, Marseille, Montpellier, and Toulouse. His job description of working with the cities of Nice, Toulouse, Montpellier, and Marseille, while being based in Vichy, necessitated the ability to travel around the country. Tzara spent the beginning of the Occupation in the Provencal region, first in Sanary. His home had been under police surveillance and he was only able to escape with the help of a resistant police officer By the end of the Occupation, he had become an important figure in the cultural Resistance in Toulouse.

Et vous? The daily struggles he faced weighed on his work. In the same letter in which Tzara discusses his immobility and inability to visit his son, he also mentions his poem about a son who flees his family and goes on the roads of France just as a war is breaking out. In his postwar analysis, Michel Leiris understood La Fuite as a clear allusion to the experience of the exodus. The particular situation of Tzara was one of displacement, but of displacements constrained by administrative laws that forbade him from circulating freely. His work focused on circulation of ideas and knowledge of Romania: an oral propaganda and intellectual exchange through literary journals, the radio, but especially in the universities.

The archival documents regarding propaganda in the universities in particular reveal the motives behind representing Romanian literature in translation. This is in part due to the nature of the surviving reports Ionesco wrote, but also to his reflections on the role of students and the university system in promoting cultural messages to the public.

The remainder of this article explores how his work in university centers, on promoting students coming from Romania to France to study abroad, as well as establishing a Romanian studies journal, all point to the cultural exchanges between France and Romania that he promoted in the war. In spite of the war, the intellectual world was not one of stagnation, but actually went through a transnational moment.

These positions, classes, and lectures were indirect means of propaganda that skirted the issue of Vichy censorship of the press. Although they organized and oversaw special examinations in Bucharest, no actual hires seemed to result from this initiative. In our reports, which also express the point of view of the counselor I.

DRAGU, the head of our Press Department, we underlined the usefulness of creating regional propaganda centers, specifying that they can be created within the natural framework of Romanian language chairs around which Romanian studies circles and conference cycles, libraries, etc. Not only were there built-in positions for Romanians who could also report directly to Ionesco, as Tanase did, but they also did not have the illusion of people who were hired for propaganda purposes.

Here circulation of scholars between France and Romania served to create another form of propaganda through university education on Romanian language and culture.

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Tanase implicitly argued that Romania is close to France through linguistics. He demonstrated that Romanian syntax, main verbs, and most of the vocabulary used orally and in writing are Latin-based. Thus he concluded that the Romanian language is a neo-Latin language. Ionesco approved of the message, and suggested in his report that in the future the Ministry of Propaganda should work to create lectureships in French universities for other Romanian students in France.


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That summer, in August , Ionesco wrote another report requesting books on Romanian literature, language, and history, as well as dictionaries, that were unavailable in France be sent to Tanase from Romania The circulation of intellectuals also spurred circulation of books and knowledge. Ionesco himself requested books from Romania through the diplomatic correspondence system, for his own translation and publication projects as well as for the Lyon book fair This talk followed two previous events, one led by Anatole de Monzie and the other by Paul Valery, the founder and first director of the center.

Namely, the talk was one long argument that Romanian is a Latinate language, and Romania is a part of the western European world and not the Slavic countries.

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In December , Ionesco wrote that his office had been in touch with Guillermon regarding his upcoming talk. He had spent in Romania while a normalien and thus was familiar with Romania and spoke Romanian After finishing a doctoral thesis on Eminescu, he was then teaching in a high school and began to look for work in a university.

But his political leanings were of even more importance. This would become the February talk. At the end of the report, Ionesco included a list of books Guillermon would require from Romania, just as he had done for Tanase. For Guillermon too, links between the French university system and the Romanian delegation opened a world of book circulation. Furthermore, he hoped this strategy ultimately would bolster French support for Romania rather than for Hungary.

Just as Tanase did, in his talk, Guillermon demonstrated that Romania is a Latinate country. This affinity was a political one.

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It would be open to the city of Nice, both to inhabitants and visitors, regardless of nationality. Since it was couched in intellectual terms, his talk would not have the appearance of being propaganda. Ionesco develops this line of thought in a different report regarding another form of international academic circulation: Romanian students studying abroad in France. Rather than relying on media, which was censored by Vichy and also could easily be seen for pure propaganda, academia presented a new avenue for cultural exchange in the aims of promoting the work of the Romanian delegation in Vichy.

So very sorry to hear this. Victoria your voice and great talent have given me hours of pleasure. Oh oui! Tenez-vous au courant.

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Amicalement, Milunisu. Si vous nous lisez, Victoria, sachez que nous pensons beaucoup, beaucoup a vous. Je vous remercie, Monsieur Depasse de bien vouloir lui transmettre ces quelques mots. Tres belle initiative et quant a la voix de Victoria, elle est enchanteresse. Un grand merci a vous! Grand merci! Je vous souhaite avec tout mon coeur que tout va bien pour vous. Patricia, la musique en introduction des chapitres est Arabesques de Debussy. Un grand merci! Merci et merci encore! Merci Victoria! Merci beaucoup Victoria. Magnifique lecture! Mais quelle triste histoire! On en a mal pour ce pauvre homme.

First I listen a chapter while I read the e-book in French and then I listen the chapter again and read the e-book in Portuguese. One hour a day, repeating the chapter next day and next… till I understand every chapter and you speaking, almost by heart. Two year listening you reading.

The next book I think will be faster.

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Wonderful your intonation and the work you did. Merci merci merci pour cette belle lecture. Merci et encore felecitation…. Fabienne, ta voix est comme du miel dans la bouche. Magistral, superbe lecture. Comme Madame Bovary, vous vibrerai toujours au fond de nos coeurs. Merci pour ce site. Que dire de plus? Amicalement Minou. Tout simplement bravo et un grand merci.

Quelle belle lecture, Merci. Bonne continuation,. Proche de la perfection. Savez vous quelles oeuvres elle a lues? C est tellement apaisant et je n en rate pas une miette. Ce qui est certain c est que je vais en telecharger d autres. Merci beaucoup pour votre merveilleux travail. Merci beaucoup. Bravo, Thomas! Superbe, merci beaucoup pour cet enregistrement. Merci mille fois. Ce site est fantastique! Bravo Fabienne B. Vous lisez vraiment bien.

Le Tajikistan. Merci pour cette lecture vivante et touchante. Merci Dominique. Vous pouvez aussi suivre ce billet sans ajouter de nouveau commentaire. Indiquez simplement ici votre e-mail:. Litterature audio. Page vue fois Musardeur le 9 avril Bien cordialement, Fabienne. Merci Fabienne, pour ce cadeau du matin. Tu lis merveilleusement bien… Sandrine. Augustin le 14 avril Bravo Bravo Fabienne B. Quelle voix charmante! Merci beaucoup Alain pour votre commentaire si encourageant! Bravo Fabienne!

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