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Their living conditions have worsened catastrophically since the break-up of the Stalinist regimes in Eastern Europe. Bulgarians and Romanians are only allowed to stay in Germany for more than three months if they obtain a registration certificate, a rental agreement and health insurance. Most of those who arrive have no idea how to obtain such documents. Full freedom of movement and the legal right to work will only apply after In the meantime some try to sell old scrap vehicles to dealers.
Others have to beg or are forced in to criminal activity. Many women manage to exist precariously on the streets. More than in Dortmund reported prostitution as their occupation. The measure was aimed at deterring further immigration. Prostitution now takes place in illegal brothels. Social workers who were previously able to look after the women by providing contraceptives and organising courses in the German language now have no opportunity to do so. They confirm every well-known stereotype. Instead of blaming the miserable economic conditions, government officials and gouging landlords, the media makes the Roma the convenient scapegoats for social problems.
More is to come. Of course Roma immigrants will not be able to afford the rent in these houses. Dortmund is not unique. In several large German cities the conditions are similar. In Duisburg, at the other end of the Ruhr region, around 6, Roma from Bulgaria and Romania live under the same inhuman conditions. Die Polizei rechtfertigte das Vorgehen mit wachsender Gewalt gegen Polizisten. Die etwa So argumentieren die Vertreter eines Polizeistaats.
Mit Ausschreitungen auf einer Demonstration am Die Ausschreitungen am Dezember waren das Ergebnis polizeilicher Provokationen. Die Situation eskalierte. Gegen diese Politik des Senats entwickelt sich breiter Widerstand. Die Offensive von Scholz und Neumann und ihre antidemokratische Argumentation zeigen allerdings, dass es um mehr geht.
Letzterer ist ein vehementer Verfechter der Vorratsdatenspeicherung. Das hat in der SPD Tradition. The measure, justified on the pretext of violence against police officers, was only lifted on Monday. They can order pedestrians to leave the area and issue bans on their presence throughout the entire zone.
Such bans are normally restricted to a few streets and are rarely issued. The approximately 50, people living in the affected areas were placed under general suspicion and had to assume that they would be searched. Scholz has now explicitly defended these actions, which are unprecedented in post-war Germany. They are even more remarkable in that it has become clear over recent days that it was predominantly the police who flouted the law. These were clashes at a demonstration on December 21 against the closure of the Rote Flora alternative culture centre and an apparent attack on the Davidwache, the building of the Hamburg police commissioner, seven days later.
Officials claimed that it was attacked at night by 40 people from anarchist groups, seriously injuring a policeman. It later emerged that the policeman was injured far from the Davidwache. Doubts also arose about the perpetrators. The clashes on December 21 resulted from provocations by the police.
The 10, protesters, who were peaceful at first, were blocked after a few metres by a large contingent of police. Officers plunged repeatedly into the midst of the demonstration in order to create a provocation. When a few bottles and fireworks were thrown, the police employed water cannon, batons and tear gas, and the situation escalated.
The driving of socially disadvantaged layers out of rented properties in the central districts of the city has developed into an explosive social issue. In October last year, the police organised an unprecedented campaign targeting black migrants, in order to detect African immigrants who had come to Hamburg from the Italian island of Lampedusa and deport them. Widespread opposition developed to the policies of the senate. There were repeated demonstrations against police violence, in defence of the refugees and against the gentrification of the city.
The escalation of violence by the police and the systematic attack on fundamental democratic rights serves to suppress these protests. However, the offensive by Scholz and Neumann and their anti-democratic argumentation show that much more is at stake. At a federal level, the recently formed grand coalition of the SPD with the Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union is planning major social attacks and the militarisation of foreign policy.
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This will inevitably lead to opposition and cannot be implemented by democratic means. Scholz is one of the main architects of the grand coalition, having led the finance group during the coalition talks, where he drafted future social attacks. In Hamburg, he has now provided a precedent for massive restrictions on democratic rights and supplied anti-democratic arguments to justify this. It is no accident that this is attempted by the only state in Germany which has a single-party SPD government. Gall is a vehement advocate of the storing of personal data by the authorities.
Eight years after the departure of the last SPD federal interior minister, Otto Schily—who was responsible for Germany's anti-terror laws—the SPD is determined to "take back the field of domestic security," Der Spiegel commented. The SPD has a long history on this issue. Its leading members included the butcher Gustav Noske, who played a key role in suppressing the revolutionary uprising of the workers in The politics of the SPD in Hamburg makes it unmistakably clear that it will draw on this tradition in the grand coalition.
Sie suchten ganz neue Wege und Formensprachen. Viele von ihnen setzten die Anregungen und neuen Ideen, die sie Westeuropa kennen gelernt hatten, in ihrer Heimat auf ihre Weise um, verbanden sie mit russischen Traditionen und entwickelten sie fort. Angefangen von symbolistischen Bildern, wie sie z. Von dort aus gelangt man in die eigentliche Ausstellung. Noch bis ins Um erschien die einflussreiche Zeitschrift Mir iskusstwa Welt der Kunst. Einige Maler, z. Andere wie Archip Kuindschi experimentierten mit Landschaften, in denen fast nur noch die Farbe ein Rolle spielte.
Manche weisen schon auf die abstrakte Malerei hin, wie sie Wassily Kandinsky und Kasimir Malewitsch kurz darauf entwickelten. Auf diesem Bild stellt der Maler sich und seinen Freund als kraftstrotzende, muskelstarke Turner dar, das Gesicht dem Betrachter zugewandt, auf Hockern in einem Zimmer sitzend mit Geige und Noten in der Hand, an der linken Seite ein Klavier, an der rechten ein gedeckter Tisch und im Hintergrund zwei ovale Bilder, die an die traditionelle russische Blumenmalerei erinnern. Von ihm sind eine ganze Reihe sehr verschiedenartiger Bilder aus seinen einzelnen Schaffensperioden zu sehen.
Gemeinsam experimentierten sie mit verschiedenen Stilen wie dem Kubofuturismus, einer Weiterentwicklung von Kubismus und Futurismus, und entwickelten eine neue Kunstform, den sie Rayonismus nannten. Besonders beeindruckend ist das Bild von mit dem Titel Die, die nichts zu verlieren haben. Auch er und seine Kunst fielen in den er Jahren in Ungnade. Many of the approximately 90 paintings are hardly known in the West and several have never even been exhibited outside Russia.
The young generation of painters during this period responded to changes in society and rebelled against convention and the ossified art world of the academies. They were in active contact with major figures in other artistic forms including music, theatre, ballet and literature, travelling abroad, above all in France, Germany and Italy, and engaged in fierce debates and polemics.
They turned away from realist painting and also from the artists of the Peredvizhniki The Wanderers such as Ilya Repin, who captured social and popular themes, but continued to paint in a traditional way. They sought new means and forms of expression. Many of them brought back home the impulses and ideas that they encountered in Western Europe, connecting them with Russian traditions and developing them further. Beginning with symbolist paintings such as those of the young Kazimir Malevich, through works influenced by Italian futurism, the rayonism of Mikhail Larionov, the neo-primitivism of his partner Natalia Goncharova, a Russian style of futurism known as cubofuturism, and the first abstract constructivist and suprematist paintings by Malevich, Lyubov Popova and Olga Rozanova—all of this exciting period was present in Maastricht.
Along with well-known artists such as Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin three of whose works were on view in Maastricht and Wassily Kandinsky, who played an important role after the Russian revolution in , many lesser-known or virtually unknown artists in the West were exhibited. Even though only a minority of them would later support the revolution and consciously place their art in the service of building a new socialist society, the spirit of was clearly anticipated in the exhibition.
The exhibition was well conceived and contributed to an understanding of the pre-revolutionary period in Russian painting. It began with a presentation of the artists through a series of portraits. There was also a circular room in which each artistic group or exhibition, their conceptions, debates, controversies, and social milieu were represented through texts, pictures and posters.
Well into the 18th century, Russian painting remained completely dominated by icon painting, but then a rapid development began, parallel to that in Western Europe and in constant exchange with Western art. In , the influential magazine Mir iskusstva World of Art appeared. This magazine and an artistic group of the same name played an important role in unifying artists educated in Russia with artistic tendencies that had developed in the rest of Europe. The declared goal was the integration of all artistic forms and their international collaboration.
To this end, the group organised exhibitions of Russian and Western European artists in Moscow and Petersburg, and mutual visits.
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Important roles in this group were played by Sergei Diaghilev, who was active in the theatre and famously organised the Ballets Russes , and the painter Leon Bakst. The famous portrait of Diaghilev by Bakst was exhibited in Maastricht, in which he looks at the viewer with a self-conscious pose and his hands in his trouser pockets. On the left in the background sits an old woman, his childhood nanny, with her hands folded in her lap.
The picture depicts the emergence of a new era, while simultaneously recalling traditional roots. At the same time, the focus of visual artists shifted from what was being represented, to how it was represented. Some painters, such as Nicholas Roerich [or Nikolai Rerikh], rebelled against the established art world by trying to represent an internal world of fairytales and symbolism, in which mythical figures or creatures, animals and landscapes expressed only dream worlds, atmospheres and feelings of anxiety and trepidation.
Others like Arkhip Kuindzhi experimented with landscapes in which the focus was almost exclusively on the colours. The works of Mikhail Vrubel are particularly impressive. They included not only wonderful paintings, but also works on paper.
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His sketches barely resemble real objects, but open up new spaces and worlds into which the viewer can project himself. His paintings, like the two portraits of his wife and his son, are not concerned with realistic portrayal, recognition or perspective, but rather with an atmosphere or spiritual feeling, expressed through a sparse pallet of colours, dominated by brown and grey tones. Some give an indication of the abstract painting that Kandinsky and Malevich would develop shortly thereafter. The latter was represented at the exhibition with his later abstract paintings, as well as with his earlier symbolist works in delicate yellow and orange tones.
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He understood suprematism to be an imagery that totally abandoned objects and limited itself to clear colours and geometrical forms. Together with his pupils, he created prototypes for industry, graphic design and architectural models. In the second half of the s, his fortunes waned as the Stalinist regime increasingly suppressed the avant-garde artists. In he was able to exhibit again in Warsaw and Berlin, and he visited the Bauhaus. Jack of Diamonds was a platform for various experiments and artistic styles, playing a key role in the development of the Russian avant-garde.
In the latter work the painter and his friend are depicted as vigorous and muscular gymnasts, their faces turned toward the viewer while sitting in a room with a violin and musical score in their hands, respectively. On the left is a piano, on the right a laid table and in the background two oval pictures, which resemble traditional Russian flower painting. Another example of the rapid development of outstanding individual artists in this period is Larionov, one of the few painters already to have been exhibited in the West.
Ihr braucht nicht auf eine Logerlaubnis warten. Wenn etwas mit den Antworten nicht in Ordnung sein sollte, melden wir uns bei euch. Bitte ladet auch ein Foto mit eurem Log hoch, das den Partnerschaftsstein u n d den daneben stehenden Baum zeigt. To this day, the huge foundling that had been discovered while building the Railway Repair Station in Schwerte-Ost in , counts as the largest of its kind in the entire Ruhr district.
Its imposing dimension suggested the use of the boulder as a memorial; the citizens of Schwerte had an inscription in memory of the victims of the two World Wars set upon the stone and erected the new monument in the Forest of Schwerte. Not before more than sixty years later the large store was transferred to a new stand in the middle of Schwerte, its inscription changed to demonstrate the new understanding and partnership between the former enemies and with the addition of the names of Schwertes partnership-towns.
Here the rock was deposited, when the glaciers shrunk again at the beginning of a warm stage. It consists of several stages of varying degrees of iciness. The pressure of the ice sheet against the hillsides led to the melting of ice. At the beginning, the resulting waters could drain towards west, but then had to find its way over the southern hillsides down into the valley of the Ruhr.
Yet, here it got caught between the glaciers of Essen and of Dortmund. The waters dammed to a huge lake that covered the entire Ruhr area up to meters NN. On the other side of the mountain range the glacier grew to more than meters in diameter and emptied near Schwerte as a glacier tongue up to 15 kilometers wide into the lake, where many icebergs floated, laden and weighted down with boulders and rubble from Scandinavia. Some of them might have stranded when the outlet of the lake was unstopped by the relatively early receding of the glacier near Essen and the waters could flow off.
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